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Dec 17

Bio Teknologi, Apa itu fermentasi ?

Bio Teknologi, Apa itu fermentasi ?

Oleh : Hadi Winarto

Bio Teknologi, Apa itu fermentasi ?

Definisi fermentasi atau peragian secara umum dapat digambarkan : perubahan yang disebabkan enzim. Contoh proses fermentasi ialah pembentukan asam laktat dalam susu dan asam cuka. Fermentasi menggambarkan pada proses pembuatan alkohol, pembuatan alkohol adalah reaksi etil-alkohol dan karbondioksida dari gula. Pasteur membuktikan bahwa bahwa fermentasi disebabkan oleh ragi kemudian ditemukan enzim ragi. Saat ini kegiatan dan penyebutan fermentasi berkembang luas dikalangan penggiat agrokultur, agrobisnis, agronomi dan agroindustri, misalnya : fermentasi pakan ayam, pakan ikan, pakan organik, fermentasi ransum ternak, fermentasi limbah organik dan lain sebagainya.

Apa keutamaan pakan yang difermentasi ?

Banyak keuntungan dari fermentasi dan yang utama adalah

1. Mengeluarkan gas metan.

2. Menghilangkan bau pada feses ternak (ikan, unggas, rumaninsia) dan akhirnya bau kandang akan berkurang.

3. Meningkatkan daya cerna pakan (fungsi organ pencernaan akan membaik) meningkatkan energi termetabolisme.

4. Bahan pakan akan semakin steril dari bakteri patogen

5. Kadar nutrisi bahan pakan semakin bermutu, utamanya kadar protein, kadar abu, kadar serat dan karbohidrat.

6. Meng-eliminir bahan anti nutrisi.

7. Meningkatkan homogenitas bahan pakan. Fermentasi dari berbagai jenis adonan akan menciptakan satu unsur kimia baru bakteri positif.

8. Daya tahan bahan hasil fermentasi lebih awet dan tahan lama.

9. Merubah molekul komplek menjadi molekul sederhana.

Menganggap enteng fermentasi atau merasa repot jika melakukan fermentasi adalah stigma yang salah. Banyak hal lain yang diperoleh dari aktifitas fermentasi. Jika anda malas, alamat usaha dibidang agrobisnis tidak akan mencapai hasil maksimum.

pernahkan anda ? mendengar kematian pada peternak kambing atau sapi, tiap minggu bahkan setiap hari terjadi kematian. Hal ini dapat dipastikan bahan pakan mengandung berbagai kuman, virus dan kotoran yang tertelan dan fermentasi lah untuk meminimalisir kematian domba, kerbau, sapi atau kambing.

Aktifitas kegiatan  fermentasi yang tepat (tepat dalam hal ini menggunakan peralatan yang steril, pengaturan suhu yang ideal dan fermentor yang berkwalitas tinggi sebagai starter meningkatkan daya kerja enzim. Fermentasi mampu membuang asam fitat, fermentor yang baik membuat sehingga tempe, oncom dan kecap sudah tidak mengandung senyawa asam fitat. Asam fitat dapat dihilangkan hingga 60-70% namun cara dipanaskan, namun cara ini tidak disarakankarena merusak unsur suplemen lain, utamanya protein. Trik unik dan ampuh dengan cara menggunakan enzim fitase untuk fermentor dalam melakukan fermentasi. Asam fitat dapat dihidrolisis oleh fitase.

Cara lain untuk meningkatkan kandungan nutrisi pakan selain fermentasi adalah dengan cara pemanasan, perebusan dan pengukusan. Masing-masing memiliki plus minus, pemanasan atau perebusan yang tidak terukur akan memusnahkan gizi lainnya. Bahan singkong yang akan difermentasi harus direbus dengan panci terbuka untuk membuang racun hidrosianin.

Ubi (singkong) hasil fermentasi disebut tape. Aktifitas ini telah mengubah ubi sebagai makanan bergizi rendah menjadi bergizi tinggi. Kedele menjadi tempe.

Keajaiban fermentasi lainnya

Ajaib 1

Dimusim suhu tidak stabil (ekstrim) dan langit memuntahkan air hujan terus menerus banyak pembudidaya pembenihan ikan air tawar terutama lele libur cuti memilih tidak memijahkan karena cacing sutra menghilang. Aha, dengan menggabungkan beberapa bahan baku pakan, enzim dan atraktan dan melalui proses ozonizer dan fermentasi an-aerob selama 15 hari terciptalah pakan pengganti cacing sutra. Hasilnya cukup bagus. Dimusim tanpa cacing biasanya harga bibit ikan melambung tinggi karena pembenih banyak yang enggan kekolam.

Ajaib 2

Fermentasi bisa membuat pakan jadi terapung ?

Ini hanya fenomena fisika, benda padat yang terapung dipermukaan karena massa jenis sebuah benda padat lebih ringan daripada air. Ajaibnya dimana ? proses fermentasi mampu merombak dinding sel benda menjadi anti air (hidrofobis) dan membentuk pori-pori.  Kombinasi menjadi massa jenis lebih ringan dan membentuk lorong udara atau pori-pori. Mengapunglah dia.

Dan banyak keajaiban lainnya dan kelak akan banyak menghasilkan berbagai keajaiban lainnya.

Para petani ikan dan peternak Indonesia juga tidak ketinggalan membuat program-program inspiratif  dan unjuk kebolehan dengan membuat TEMPE UNTUK LELE yang memperkaya khasanah bio-teknologi Indonesia.

TEMPE UNTUK LELE (asumsi 100kg pakan)

Menghitung hpp per-kg dan kadar air dan total biomassa

Tepung kulit         40kg x Rp.5.500  = Rp.220.000. Kadar air   9%  = 36,40kg

Tepung kedele    20kg x Rp6.000   = Rp.120.000. Kadar air 14% =  17,20kg

Tepung gaplek    20kg x Rp.3.500  = Rp.  70.000. Kadar air 18% =  17,60kg

Tepung jagung    10kg x Rp.4.500  = Rp.  45.000. Kadar air 18% =    8,20kg

Tepung dedak      10kg xRp.3.500  = Rp.  35.000. Kadar air 15% =    8,50kg

Fermentor (enzima star 100ml)       = Rp.    3.000.

Ragi tempe            100gram              = Rp.    3.000.

Total hpp adalah Rp.496.000 dibagi total biomassa 87,90kg      = Rp.5642/kg

Tiap bahan memiliki kadar air berbeda, data kadar bahan baku yang kami cantumkan diatas tidak jauh berbeda dengan bahan baku secara umum.

Menghitung kandungan protein

Tepung kulit         40kg x 38%  = 14,4%

Tepung kedele    20kg x 36%  =    7,2%

Tepung gaplek    20kg x 2%    =    0,4%

Tepung jagung    10kg x 8%    =    0,8%

Tepung dedak      10kg x 11% =    1,1%

Total protein                               =   23,9%

Setelah dilakukan fermentasi dan menjadi tempe selama 3 hari dengan menggunakan ragi tempe dan enzima star telah terjadi kenaikan kadar protein secara signifikan menjadi 32,5%.

Melakukan pembuatan tempe untuk lele total kandungan kadar air agar menjadi tempe tidak boleh diatas 30%. Anda bisa menggunakan bahan baku lainnya yang mudah didapat dan tetap memperhatian kwalitas bahan, komposisi yang ideal untuk lele dan menggunakan perangkat yang bersih dan steril.

Masihkah anda anti fermentasi ??? jika anda masih meragukan silahkan anda lakukan uji laboratorium bahan-bahan yang anda miliki baik bahan dalam kondisi mentah, dikukus, direbus dan dipanaskan. Buat beberapa variabel penelitian dengan menggunakan berbagai fermentor. Lihatlah hasilnya, anda pasti akan tercengang !!!

Saran fermentasi dan aplikasi :

1. Gunakan piranti untuk fermentasi dengan menghindari dari bahan logam dan tembaga, gunakan bahan dari plastik.

2. Gunakan fermentor yang bermutu sehingga mampu memperbaiki kwalitas nutrisi pakan utamanya kadar protein, karbohidrat, serat, abu, lemak, lisin, metionin, nitrobakter, lactobasillus dan menekan kandungan asam fitat, gas metana, bakteri salmonella dan bakteri e-colli.

3. Memastikan kadar nutrisi awal ter-identifikasi.

4. Amati pertumbuhan ikan dan ternak setelah diberi ransum fermentasi dan non-fermentasi.

5. Memastikan bahan yang difermentasi dan peralatan yang digunakan steril dan higienis.

6. Memperhatikan kwalitas air yang digunakan sebagai pra-sarana fermentasi.

Bagaimana fermentasi bekerja :

Melalui bantuan air, suhu (udara) dan enzim-enzim bekerja melakukan enrichment (pengayaan) terhadap materi substrat dan melibatkan micro-organisme.

Jenis dan bentuk fermentasi :

Fermentasi sudah lama dilakukan terhadap berbagai bahan, metode yang dilakukan baik secara aerob maupun secara an-aerob, baik secara konvensional maupun dengan memakai teknik modern, diantaranya adalah : Fermentasi alkohol, fermentasi asam laktat, fermentasi Propionat, fermentasi butirat, tuak, tape,wine, Yoghurt, pembuatan pupuk Organik dan lain-lain.

Bio Teknologi, Apa itu fermentasi ?  Bondowoso, 27 Juli 2016

Lebih Dekat Dengan Enzim :

Enzim atau biokatalisator atau fermentasi. Enzim yaitu zat organik yang dibuat oleh jasad renik, jasad hidup tumbuh-tumbuhan, binatang/hewan yang mengubah reaksi kimia tertentu, tanpa mengubah. Reaksi kima terjadi ribuan jenis reaksi yang terus menerus terjadi dan berlangsung serentak dalam jasad hidup akan terjadi oleh enzim.

Andaikata tidak ada enzim, untuk melanjutkan reaksi-reaksi yang sejenis diperlukan temperatur yang tinggi dan lingkungan yang sangat asam, keadaan yang tidak dapat disesuaikan dengan hidupnya sel. Semua jenis enzim berwujud protein atau se sedikit pun protein memiliki zat enzim.

Pada dekade awal enzim di identifikasi dengan nama ilmiah seperti papain, pepsin, tripsin, ptyalin. Kemudian substrat enzim berkembang dan dikenallah seperti Enzim amilase yaitu yang melancarkan pemisahan saripati (amilum), enzim lipase yang memecahkan lemak (lipos) dan lebih maju dan berkembang lagi ditemukan enzim karbohidrase, protase, dehidrogenase. Perangkat uji labor pun mengikuti kemajuannya untuk menemukan dan menentukan berbagai jenis enzim.

Kegiatan sel yang meliputi sintesa, perombakan, oksidasi, reduksi, hidrolisa dan seterusnya dimungkinkan terdapat ratusan jenis-jenis enzim dalam setiap sel. Tidak semua enzim bertugas dalam sel yang membuatnya. Hal ini dapat diamati pada enzim-enzim pencernaan yang dikeluarkan sepanjang saluran pencernaan, sebagian enzim pencernaan dikeluarkan oleh sel dalam bentuk in-aktif yang disebut zimogen. Zimogen atau pro-enzim itu dipersatukan dengan zat lain yang disebut aktivator atau kinase yang merubah menjadi enzim aktif, misalnya tripsinogen yang berasal dari sel-sel pankreas yaitu pro-enzim yangberubah menjadi tripsin aktif bila bercampur dengan skret usus kecil yang mengandung enterokinase. Pepsin dalam lambung dikeluarkan sebagai pepsinogen dan memerlukan HCL sebagai aktivator. Berbagai jenis enzim dipisahkankan menjadi 2 bagian :
– Sebagian bersifat protein (disebut apo-enzim) yang bersifat termolabil dan tak dapat di dialisa.
– Bagian lain (disebut co-enzim) yang bermolekul kecil, ada bagian yang tidak aktif. Kedua bagian ini apo-enzim dan co-enzim akan aktif bila dipersatukan menjadi holo-enzim.
Banyak diantaranya vitamin-vitamin B-compleks hidup sebagai co-enzim. Salah satu klarifikasi enzim menggunakan macam reaksi dipercepatnya selaku dasar penggolongan seperti disebut dibawah ini, tiap golongan melitputi puluhan enzim. Kegiatan atau aktifitas enzim dipengaruhi oleh banyak faktor seperti konsentrasi enzim itu dalam campuran reaksi, konsentrasi substrat, konsentrasi zat-zat hasil reaksi, oleh pH, suhu dan lingkungan. Juga tiap suhu memiliki suhu optimum.

Penggolongan enzim
1. Hidrolisa, enzim yang merombak subtratnya terlebih dahulu yang mengikat air. Contoh : lipase, fosfatase, karbohidrase, protease.
2. Fosforilase
3. Transferase yang memindahkan gugusan persenyawaan yang satu dengan lainnya. Misalnya , transaminase, transmetilase.
4. Karbosilase, yang mengikat dan mengeluarkan CO2 kepada suatu senyawa.
5. Hidrase,
6. Isomerase dan mutase
7. enzim aksidasi.
Enzim-enzim yang terdapat dalam tubuh bakteri, ragi digunakan dalam pembuatan makanan seperti oncom, tempe, petis trasi, taoco, tape dan dipabrik-pabrik bir.

Thanks, salam agro-kreatif

(Info, 081224217112, No SMS)

Baca juga

Teknologi ENZIM yang paling dicari

Kascing pupuk terbaik didunia

Koleksi album milik boosterfish Farm

Hasil Uji Labor ransum ayam hasil fermentasi.

uji labor

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